The present work is dedicated to the study of the effect of heat treatments on the cyclic behavior of a 2017A aluminum alloy, which is widely used in the aerospace industry. We are interested in the evolution of fatigue behavior, the first loading cycles as well as the total life until fracture, for several states of heat treatment. The samples have already been passed to the homogenization heat treatment in order to erase all the unknown history of the studied alloy. Then, a structural hardening is applied by making two groups of samples, one quenching with iced water and the other quenched with liquid nitrogen. For both groups, we performed several series of maturation at different temperature levels. The treated samples were subjected to cyclic strain-controlled loading. Other characterization tests were performed such as hardness tests and microstructural analyzes using the Scanning Electron Microscope. The results of these investigations explain why the different lifetimes obtained for the samples tested.